Rug Cleaning Terms
When doing anything with oriental rugs it is a good idea to know a few basic rug cleaning terms and general terms about rugs.
Abrash - a variation of color in oriental rugs. This can be caused by the differences in wool quality or by different dye methods.
Border - the design that surrounds the main area of the rug. Oriental rugs may have one border or many borders. Think of the border as being similar to a picture frame.
Dyes - whether natural or synthetic this is the object used to give the wool color.
Edge - the side of the rug that is generally bound by wool to secure the foundation of the rug.
Fringe - found on both ends of a rug the fringe is made up of the warp yarns in the foundation of the rug. Fringe is typically white cotton but can be wool or silk as well.
Field - sometimes also referred to as ground, this is the main area of the rug located inside the border(s).
Foundation - the warp and weft yarns of a rug.
Gabbeh - the word means unfinished or unclipped. This refers to a style of rug.
Indigo - this is blue dye taken from the indigo plant. Indigo can also be made synthetically.
Jufti - a type of knot used in both Persian and Turkish rugs. This knot wraps around pairs of foundation threads not single ones. It can make the rug faster to weave but is thought of as a lower quality knot.
Knots - this is what creates the pile of the rug. The two general types of knots are the asymmetrical and symmetrical knots.
Loom - a frame used to weave rugs.
Medallion - common pattern used in rugs. Such as a center medallion. It can be floral shaped, diamond shaped or other shapes and is most commonly found in the center of the rug.
Overcasting - a method of securing the fringe so that it does not come unravelled.
Re-weave - a repair done on oriental rugs after they have sustained damage from moths, tears, water damage, etc.
Silk - found in some rugs. It can be used as pile or in the foundation.
Warp - a specific foundation thread in an oriental rug that run vertically.
Weft - a specific foundation thread in an oriental rug that runs horizontal. The easy way to remember this is that they run right to weft.
Z-Spun - yarn that is spun in a counter-clockwise direction.